week 3: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

Due: Sunday, 18 October 2020, 10:00 PM

week 3: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

Number of replies: 20

The expanded material provides us with the opportunity to further explore, confirm or attune our perceptions of the text which we formed on the basis of the first reading.

To give you a better idea of the "redemptive part" of Ywain's story, I supply it in full in modern English prosaic translation (also because the summary is very selective here).
Selected passages are given in the original with notes and translation, together with parallel passages from Chrétien's source in poetic and prosaic translation

1) I would like to ask each of you to consider how the latter part of the romance stands in relation to the issues we debated last week - the motivation for Ywain's later exploits and their social dimension (or lack thereof, as the case may be). Try to argue your stance with one example from the story.

2) Choose one incident/passage that you find especially illustrative of the differences in approach between Chrétien and the Middle English adaptation and comment on it briefly.

In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Adéla Zeimannová -
It feels like that the first part of Ywain’s quest was motivated by the need to honor Colgrevance, thus, by a social code. However, the second quest, his road to redemption is much more personal and individual in motivation. He behaved like a knight, performing heroic deeds, but failed to keep his promise, failing to become a knight in moral character. The earlier adventures seem to be adventures for the sake of adventure and fame, or for the honor of his cousin. His redemption seems to serve to make him realize that being a knight is more than battles and trying to prove himself but also having a good moral character.

Comparing the scenes where Ywain returns to the well, his regret is way more emphasized in the French version. It is present throughout the story, however, in this particular scene the difference feels greater. Chrétien spends around 70 lines on Ywain’s feelings, letting him voice his sorrow, he puts all the blame on himself, he is sad for being a fool. The English version spends around 40 lines on depicting the same scene, from which most is spent on describing the lion’s reaction to Ywain’s breakdown and only 15 lines on expressing Ywain’s feelings, where he talks more of sorrow than blame. The French version seems to highlight the importance of courtly love in combination with knightly duties, while the English version seems to be more focused on the heroic.
In reply to Adéla Zeimannová

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Zuzana Šindlerová -

I completely agree with your remark that the motivation behind Ywain's actions feel completely different in the two parts we have read.
In the first part he seems to act on account of someone else, either trying to avenge Sir Colgrevance and later on trying not to lose "his face" in front of a condescending Sir Kay.
The second part deals with his personal struggle as he has failed his wife, did not keep up his promise and lost her love. The madness phase that he undergoes is maybe in a way some kind of penance? Is that a Christian element, even though indirectly interwoven in the story? He needs to go through a difficult passage of losing his mind, then regaining it through help of (a Christian?) hermit, and through a generous dose of medicine, only to pay more in blood and injuries. Only after painful psychological and physical suffering is he allowed to return to his wife and they reconcile. (By the way, what is the reasoning for the maid's decision to give him the entire medicine and lie about it to her lady, falsely claiming that she has lost the box on the bridge? Her lie, also, seems to have no consequences. She is not punished for the lie, it is actually never mentioned again. )

In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Danila Gudkov -
I find it rather amusing and hypocritical that Alundyne would not even bother to give her former husband that invincibility ring of hers, yet is in such grief when he got fatally wounded, while protecting her honor no less, only to fall in love and get married to his murderer in record time. On a similar note, Lunet hides the murderer of her liege from Alundyne and her men, then persuades her to marry Ywain because of his strength, only for him to abandon both his new wife and his new duty. Yet in the eyes of Ywain and narration she is a damsel in distress, good, loyal and righteous unlike her wrongful accusers who got thrown in a fire.
1) Before losing the favor of Alundyne Ywain goes on the adventures purely for the sake of reputation, his own or his relative's. He also seems to think that the fame is the most important thing both in private and public life, an opinion supported by Gawain. After he got himself a divorce, his actions are done to help people or to right his wrongs and he does his adventures under a pseudonym, with his motivation being guilt and inner goodness.
2) In Chrétien's version I have found no mention of how exactly Ywain got rid of his madness, unless the implication is that he got cured by time and hermit's food. On the contrary, in the Middle English version there is an episode when two ladies treat him with the ointment, which is conveniently both capable of curing madness and lies in their nearby home. Also, the Chretien version establishes that Ywain's heart belongs to Alundyne, which makes the fact that he forgot his promise all the stranger. In ME verses Ywain just suddenly remembers that he has a wife and that he made her a promise, which is also strange as he is still madly in love with her in this version.
In reply to Danila Gudkov

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Helena Znojemská -
I agree with your (and Adéla's) interpretation of Ywain's motivations in the two parts of the romance (1). There is a reversal of sorts in the presentation of the public/private (individual) aspect of Ywain's conduct.
2) - as I said, I only picked a few passages from Chrétien. The story is the same, so likewise the way Ywain is cured.

I'm glad you brought to the fore the tensions in the narrative - in Alundyne's behaviour etc. We'll return to that in the online session.
In reply to Danila Gudkov

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Zuzana Šindlerová -
This is exactly what I have thought too. How come the first husband was never given this special treatment and was never protected by the magical power of a ring? By the way, is it still chivalric to gain an unfair advantage over one's enemies because you are wearing a magical tool who prevents you from ever being injured or killed?
It also does not strike me as very chivalric to leave a newly-wed wife in order to partake in tournaments (a leisurely activity as well!). Especially since we know that the moment her first husband died, king Arthure was immediately ready to take her land, thinking there is noone to protect an unfortunate widow.
Ywain is leaving her without protection, in my mind any loitering knight is free to attack her since the lord of the house is gone, not even thinking about the promise he has given his new wife. Never even caring to visit her during the year he is away. 
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Liana Marie Ellegate -
I completely agree with Adéla’s thoughts on the first part of the narrative. During the initial adventure, there is a much bigger focus on the social influences (Sir Kay’s tauntings, and Ywain’s feeling of obligation to avenge the honour of his family member). I think the motivation for Ywain’s exploits in the second part of the narrative is mainly his love for his wife, however. There are a couple of examples within the tale that cause me to draw this conclusion - but the first and most compelling (because it sets the atmosphere for the rest of his actions) is the scene in which Ywain is publicly shamed by the maiden for his broken vows. That scene is pointedly set in a public forum, with the shame not only taking place in front of the people arguably closest to the knight after his wife, but is also articulated to specifically target the qualities of his knighthood he is most proud of. Despite these facts, Ywain does not go mad because of the public shaming or sense of hopelessness or uselessness caused by the attack of his character - rather, he goes mad because of the sense of grief and anguish inspired by the prospect of losing his love forever.
Another example that struck me is Ywain’s actions after he wakes from his swoon. He once again wallows in his anger at himself for not honouring his promise and thus losing the love of his wife forever. This scene reiterates that no matter what adventure he is engaged in, his mind is perpetually preoccupied with his anguish at the loss of his love, and that spurs him forward.
Note: For the answers to this question I was referring to the French version.

There are many scenes that clearly illustrate the differences in approach and emphasis between the Middle English and French versions of this text. I also noted Danila’s points about the differences between the swooning scenes in the two versions as I read. Another scene in which the difference in approaches are stark can be found at the beginning of this part of the story, when Sir Gawain convinces Ywain to accompany the knights on their adventures. In the English version, Gawain’s argument focuses on Ywain’s reputation overall - and argues that marriage should not interfere with his pursuit of knightly chivalry. The French version follows a similar line of thought, but expressly connects the argument with love. In that version, Gawain argues that Ywain must continue proving his reputation as an honourable knight lest he lose the love of his wife by letting his reputation slip. That was striking to me because the emphasis on the connection between having a chivalric knightly reputation and the love in his marriage in the French version establishes love as the main underlying motivation right from the beginning.
In reply to Liana Marie Ellegate

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Helena Znojemská -
A very incisive commentary on the public/individual dimension in the opening scene of Ywain's second quest - thanks!
Your observations on the different presentation of Gawain's reasoning in the French and English versions seem to tally with what we have observed in the first part of the narrative - the much more dominant focus on love in Chrétien.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Kateřina Mudrová -
I also cannot but largely agree with Liana and Adéla. In the first part of the text (last week) we learn little about Ywain’s motivation for the quest; we know he did it to fulfil the duties set by his position as a knight, as well as a friend to Colgravance who have been dishonoured by the mysterious knight and Kay’s mocking remarks. We might also argue, that since Ywain is still single at the start of the story, it is likely he’s a very young man who strives to prove his place in Arthur’s company, yet at the same time seem still very vulnerable to social pressure. This is precisely the reason why he decides to leave his wife after the wedding, because Gawain tells him what a proper knight should do, and Ywain is worried that „ the men would will joke about me if I stay at home“, although it is suggested he does not wish to. He tries to appease both his friends and the company and promises to do anything they ask. The youthful recklessness is still present though, as it is suggested in the Eng. Version that while he deeply loves Alundine, he simply forgot about his promise. The redemptive part, on the other hand is focused on Ywain re-building his trust in himself and his personal identity. He starts from the nothing, as a nameless mad man, then becomes the Knight with the Lion and then finally reclaims his name, For the whole time, he intentionally conceals his identity from all who knew him, partially in order to avoid their influence. Before he sets out to fight for the younger sister’s right of inheritance, he considers the whole situation and says „I shall take my own advice“. In the very end, he challenges Gawain, the very person who persuaded him to leave Alundine and they reconcile as friends and equals, neither of them accepting victory”. After that, Ywain feels ready to return to his wife and with the help of Lunet (who truly is the one who manipulates the whole story to a happy end) regains her love. We are told, that after that, no one has ever heard of them again, which suggest Ywain never again allowed to be “lured away”.
In Chretien’s version, the agency is largely taken from Ywain, as we can tell already from the very beginning. He does not wish to leave his wife, but they are almost violently divided by the king’s will. We are told that when his “body” left, his heart stayed with Alundine. Then the poet suggests that when such thing happens “in strange fashion [the body] takes a new heart of hope, which is so often deceitful and treacherous” which is the root of Ywain’s failure and future suffering. Then he is once again influenced by Gawain and made to stay at the court over St. John’s day. It is not really suggested that this was his fault either. With the recovery from madness omitted and no happy ending (???) the development of Ywain’s character is pretty much absent. I don’t understand why the ending isn’t there, since Chretien put so much emphasis on Ywain’s and Alundine’s relationship.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Michaela Válková -
I think that Ywain’s motivation for his quests differs in the second part of the story because of his anonymity. In the first part, as the others have already mentioned, he was motivated by trying to bring honour to himself, his family, or his king. It may be argued that his motivation was all about the social dimensions of his actions – to fit in within the Arthur’s company and, though perhaps not fully intentionally, to find himself a wife. Hence, all the good deeds that Ywain performed during the first part of the story, though they were virtuous in themselves, served to advance Ywain’s career, personal life, and reputation. It is impossible to deduce if Ywain accomplished all the noble, knightly acts out of the goodness of his heart or in order to better his reputation as the text does not really dive into the psychology of the characters that deeply. However, this motivation of Ywain’s, to give himself a good social standing, disappears when Ywain’s surrenders his identity and everything he had achieved so far in life. Once he had been cured from his madness, he seems to genuinely want to help people just for the sake of doing the right thing which manifests in his refusal to take rewards, marry again, or acknowledge himself. Therefore, I would argue that the need for redemption humbled Ywain and changed his heart.

When it comes to the difference between the two versions, the English one seems to me to be much more straight-forward; in a way it reads as if one was watching a modern tv show in which action scenes quickly follow each other without much emphasis on eloquence or indeed explanation of characters’ motivation for acting the way they do. That might not be a purely negative aspect though as if one engages his/her own imagination, the story reads very nicely, and the numerous action scenes and adventures are amusing to follow. On the other hand, Chrétien’s source comes across to me as more of a poetic endeavour in which it is worth to pay attention to the metaphors and complex feelings being communicated. To illustrate my points, the opening scene in which Gawain persuades Ywain to abandon his wife immediately after their marriage could be used. In the English version, we hear Gawain’s reasoning, then there is the conversation between the spouses in which they seem to understand each other’s points without much mutual emotional blackmailing and then they go their own way. Alundyne says: “If you don’t come by that day,/ you will lose my love forever.” In Chrétien’s story, she says: “Your leave I will / So grant, until a certain date, / But then my love will turn to hate, / That I bear you, you may be sure / If you should remain on / that shore Beyond the time that I shall set, /And I will keep my word yet; / Though you break yours, I will not.” I think there is a huge difference in the way Alundyne communicates her feelings in the two versions. In the first one, she gives clear instructions to Ywain and makes him understand that if he could not fulfil her requirements, she would be unable to wait for him forever. In Chrétien, Alundyne makes it obvious that if Ywain forgets about the deadline, he will not only lose her love, but her love will turn into hate and such hate could never go away. I think that such examples demonstrate what we have already mentioned last week: that Chrétien’s story gives more emphasis to love. In this regard, I must agree with Kateřina that Chrétien’s ending seems a bit anticlimactic or incomplete.

I would also like to mention that Lunet is for me the most wonderful character of the story. The girl is clever and resourceful and a bit of deus ex machina. She is a much more active character than Alundyne and always pushes people around her into taking the right decisions.
In reply to Michaela Válková

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Helena Znojemská -
I appreciate your commentary on the differences between the two versions. They make perfect sense, but we also have to note that with the diving into those complex feelings in Chrétien the tensions, inconsistencies and paradoxes are heightened, because the feelings communicated quite often cancel each other out or at least seem mutually incompatible - by way of example, if the English version is more reticent in the description of Ywain's feelings for Alundyne it makes it easier to accept that he could forget all about his promise to her. In Chrétien it seems much more difficult to accept that this could happen. In a sense, it is what Danila writes about - the sudden changes of heart apparently so completely genuine and "felt to the full", as it were.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Jáchym Hájek -
I also cannot but agree with Adéla and Liana. I think in both cases Ywain's quest has the purpose of restoring honour, but while the first is mainly the honour of Sir Colgrevance and, by extension, Ywain's as a part of his family, therefore being rooted in social conventions and the way chivalric honour and family relationships was viewed, Ywain's second quest relates purely to him, his own sense of honour, love, regret etc. I really liked Michaela's point about anonymity, which I think definitely proves the personal approach - the world doesn't know it's him, but he does (obviously) and that is what matters to him. Also at first he was only restoring the honour lost by Sir Colgrevance as a result of losing a fight, but this time he's trying to right a very personal failing, a broken promise, and to a lady on top of that. So not only the personal relationship to the quest, but also the severity of the cause is much different, bigger, one could say.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Dominika Kecsöová -
I do agree with the idea that in the second part Yvain´s motivation is much more personal, however, I would also like to highlight the importance of social norms here: my first argument is that a lot of the action is based on what I would call “favour economy” (e.g. Lunet helped Yvain, so Yvain has to save Lunet from being unjustly executed; Gavain and Yvain´s relationship is based on courtesies they exchanged). The second part also begins with concerns about reputation, as Gavain taunts Yvain that he shall go soft if he stays with his new wife. Then there is Liana´s point, that his shaming is public and social – to get away from it, he retreats not only into madness, but also in the woods, out of the sight of society. The social element is also apparent in the fact that the knight´s deeds “exist” only to such degree as they are witnessed or talked about. This is true even of courtoisie, as Chrétien says: “For kind actions are of no use if you are not willing that they be known.“
The difference between the two parts I´d like to point out is that Yvain seems humbled by his failure (and it is a failure in an important part of knighthood, keeping one´s word). He seems far less cocky and sure of himself: the ME version has for example “Syr Ywayn sayd, "I sal the hyght / To mend thi murnyng at my myght: / Thorgh grace of God in Trenyté / I sal the wreke of tham al thre.““
It is interesting to note the different ways in which the two versions describe Yvain´s madness: Chrétien is more physical and external (the only way for Yvain to articulate his sorrow is to harm himself):
They know well enough that he cares nothing for their talk or their society. And he goes away until he is far from the tents and pavilions. Then such a storm broke loose in his brain that he loses his senses; he tears his flesh and, stripping off his clothes, he flees across the meadows and fields, leaving his men quite at a loss, and wondering what has become of him.
The ME version is actually more internal and Yvain is actually able to articulate his grief:
At worth to noght ful wele he wend,
For wa he es ful wil of wane.
"Allas, I am myne owin bane;
Allas," he sayd, "that I was born,
Have I my leman thus forlorn,
An evyl toke him als he stode;
For wa he wex al wilde and wode.
Unto the wod the way he nome;
No man wist whore he bycome.
Obout he welk in the forest,
Als it wore a wilde beste;
In reply to Dominika Kecsöová

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Helena Znojemská -
Thanks for reintroducing the social dimension to the reading of Ywain's second quest - but I don't think you disagree in that with your colleagues. We could say that Ywain engages in socially important acts ("helping the people") to achieve his personal redemption.
In reply to Dominika Kecsöová

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Zuzana Šindlerová -
I really liked your comment about Ywain's madness being described as something physical. I actually got the same feeling when reading the ME version. I thought the details depicting violence, fighting and physical suffering seemed to be extremely gruesome, it even reminded me of our modern (weird) obssession with watching disgusting horrors or action movies. We seem to get a certain strange form of satisfaction when the next film seems to be more and more nauseating and ghastly.
And every time someone complains that there is too much violence in today's media, they might be surprised to find the same level of horridness in Arthurian romances, as well.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Hana Hájková -
I completely agree with the differences between the 1st and 2nd parts connected to the social code and so on. In the 1st part, Ywain is more focused on the idea of being an honorable knight in the eyes of society and having something like that connected to his name. On the other hand, in the second part, he goes through some sort of breakdown, shame, and failure, thus, when he "rises" again, he acts undercover to redeem himself (mostly in his own eyes and the eyes of Alundyne). But still, his motivation is to purify his name and go back to Alundyne...he acts under the name of love. His actions are definitely more "pure" and less self-centered...there are no other knights...he travels alone (with his lion)--- less social pressure?...
For me, the biggest difference between Chrétien and Middle Eng. is, once again, connected to the different emphasis on love and adventure. The English version gives more action and an in-depth description of the fights, Ywain's breakdown, and (sometimes) it gives me an action-movie-feeling. The French version focuses on love, betrayal, regret...omits some other things, like Ywain's return of sanity, and goes right after the feelings and things connected to the love story.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Valeriia Kliuieva -
I also agree with what is already written on the first part of the question. For me, there is an obvious contrast between the motivations of Ywain´s exploits which I could probably define as an "evolution of the character". Many of the elements seem to be taken from the legends and myths or are the ones we could find in the fairy-tales, which I found interesting, but it is not untypical for the romance genre.
Also, this part of the romance I found more interesting in the original version, than in the Cretien´s one. Madness of Ywain and his motivation for the further deeds had here more impact on me, they were more sudden than they read in the French version (I am talking here about the poetic version), which already was overwhealmingly full of emotions and stress on them on every spot.
As for the second part of the question, I found it really interesting to compare the maddness descriptions in the both version. The original one depicts Ywain "walking around like a wild beast", not getting much into details, whike the French one is giving us a vivid image, of course, of him tearing his flesh and being almost naked completely lost in his mind, very dramatic. Also, original version, for example, gives us an image of him drinking the warm blood "which did him much good", while hunting in the woods, and French version says he killed a deer and ate him, but the blood part is left out (maybe to make it not too scary or disgusting, but these are just my assumptions).
To what was posted previously by Danila: also my assumptions, but maybe the ring here is a plot device making Ywain ran out of his excuses why can´t he show up in a year, to show the reader that all the obstacles were here not on his way, but his own desire and motivation were important.
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Ivana Turusová -
I cannot help but find certain parallels in both parts of the story. In the first part, Sir Colgrevance goes on an adventure because that is what knights do, to bring himself some fame, engage in fights, and he loses his fight by being humiliated by the foreign king. Ywain then fights the king and comes out as a victor because he is determined to "help" Sir Colgrevance restore his pride, or in other words, he does not fight for himself. It reminds me very much of what happens in the second part - Ywain is talked into leaving his wife (whom he claims to love very dearly) to seek other adventures because Gawain persuades him to not lose his pride by staying at home. I see the parallel here with Sir Colgrevance - both he and Ywain go to do something selfish and thus, they both fail (Ywain loses his wife by breaking his promise and his mind as well by being publicly embarassed and crushing his wife's trust). But after Ywain is magically cured, it appears that the motivation for his deeds changed completely and he helps other genuinely from the bottom of his heart not because the chivalric knight's code tells him so (he would then tell everyone his name to get famous) but because he believes it is the right thing to do, and he is determined to redeem himself by helping others. That is the reason why he, in the end, wins every fight and regains Alundyne's heart back - this is the second parallel I see with Ywain winning his battle to help Colgrevance.

The passage that struck me the most was the final fight between Ywain and Gawain. The ME version did not go into much detail about the relationship of the mentioned knights - it barely says that had they known each other's identity, they would stop fighting while in the French version, Chrétien vividly describes the almost brotherly love between the knights, emphasizes their friendship and the will to die for each other, the passage is approximately in triple length. That, in my opinion, supports our theory that the French version focuses more on emotions and relationships - not only between a man and a woman but also between comrades, knights.
In reply to Ivana Turusová

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Helena Znojemská -
Thanks for this partial correction to the general conclusion that the French original is more focused on love. So it is, but not just that. Now, a question that stems from your observation - can we say that the French original presents more "rounded" characters, with distinct subjectivity and inner life?
In reply to First post

Re: Chrétien and its English redaction - the concerns of romance - continued

by Letícia Marques Diniz -
1-) As stated by Pearsall, in a romance the hero seeks “adventures in which the values of chivalry and service to ladies will be submitted to test and proved” (21). Thus, at the beginning of Chrétien’s romance Ywain not only wants to revenge his cousin Colgrevance, but also to prove his courage as a knight, both personal motivations. However, after losing his credibility (when he forgets his promise and doesn’t return to Alundyne after one year), Ywain had to learn how to regain his truth and integrity through his disinterested love and care of the fellow being. Some deeds of concern for others can be cited as examples: when Ywain protects the lion against the dragon and when he rescues Lunet in the chapel. So it’s possible to state that Ywain’s motivation has changed, because now his love for Alundyne (proved by the two passages previously mentioned) is more important than his acts of individual derring-do.
Therefore, “what began for Ywain as ‘mere adventures’ has become a more serious kind of self-testing and self-proving.” (Pearsall 35) Considering its social dimension, this romance shows us that all people can be transformed from selfish to ones who care about others, which is also the main characteristic of a true knight.

2-) It’s clear the difference between Chretién’s romance and the Middle English adaptation. While Chretién dedicates long lines of his poem to describe Alundyne’s sorrow and pain (when she realizes that her husband is dead), in the English version this passage is short, direct and without too many details. This reinforces one of the characteristics of romances, in which women are weak and seen as objects of adoration. However, in the Middle English adaptation the woman is also suffering, but the author doesn’t demonstrate her extreme weakness, suppressing her feelings to the fullest.

CHRETIÉN
"As they were hunting, far and wide
And under the seats, uselessly
There entered the loveliest lady,
That any mortal man hath seen.
So fair a Christian dame, I mean,
Has ne’er been spoken of, although
She was nigh mad with sorrow,
As if seeking the means to die.
And suddenly she gave a cry,
So loud no cry could be louder,
Then fell forward with a shudder,
And when roused from her faint,
Like a madwoman made plaint,
Clawing her face in deep despair
And tearing fiercely at her hair;
She tore at her hair and her clothes,
And, at every step, fell then rose.
Nor was there any comfort here,
Forced to view her husband’s bier
Carried before her, and him dead,
She could no more be comforted;
Thus she cried loudly for her loss."

MIDDLE ENGLISH ADAPTATION
"Greatly disappointed
that they could not avenge their lord,
they left with dreary faces
and went to the bier.
A lady, white as milk followed,
nearly mad with woe.
She wrung her hands until they bled –
she was nearly mad with sorrow -
pulled out her fair hair, wept,
and often fell down in a swoon."