The course will briefly trace the history of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America from the pre-Columbian past to present days. The first sessions will provide an introduction to Indigenous Peoples in Latin America, their origins, but also examine what lies behind the label ‘being indigenous’ during different periods. It will focus on basic cultural concepts of Indigenous Peoples, their oral tradition and rituals that will lead us to the theory and practice of anthropological research. Final sessions will be dedicated to major current issues, such as globalization, environment and sustainable development, cooperation, human rights, etc.